According to most of statics from reliable sources, we can name 8 most popular programming languages, as below:
There are some more programming languages like “Swift”, which is mostly designed for iOS mobile applications and is popular well, but at this point, I don’t talk about it.
Each of above 8 general purpose languages, has its own specifications which we talk about them shortly, here:
Python is well known for its simple syntax and its code readability. Mainly use of python is for data science and artificial intelligence and its popular libraries are: SciPy, Jupiter, Tenser Flow, Kras, Matplotlib and many other.
Python is widely used in Search Engine of google and Youtube and Instagram is written by web framework of Python (Django Framework).
C++ is a high level language with powerful (and somehow complicated) object oriented feature. Windows operating system, which is installed in all of Microsoft PC and Laptops, is written by C++ and Assembly (a low level programming language which widely uses in micro-chips like AVR microcontrollers and etc).
“Qt”, is a GUI software or framework which is written by C++ and is very powerful for building desktop applications and software (obviously for windows OS). The OS (operating system) of first generation of mobiles like Nokia and etc (Not current Samsung and Apple Smart Phones), was written by Qt. You can even build desktop application with python language or other languages with help of Qt framework (for example with PyQt library in Python).
Clearly if you want to create a high speed software for windows OS, your first choice could be C++ or C# which talk about it in next section. Although, as I mentioned already, you can build software for windows OS, with any language like Python or Java or etc.
C# was created in 2001, when the Microsoft team was developing .Net Framework. During their work, they decided to create a language that has almost all core properties of C++, with some new features.
You can easily build awesome desktop software with Visual Studio, using C# language. Also, C# is base language for Microsoft web development framework which is ASP.Net. Recently in 2018, Microsoft revealed a new framework for Machine Learning, using .Net Framework and C# that is ML.Net.
Microsoft have done some efforts to make .Net framework and C#, a multi-platform language (like Java), for building apps in Mac and other machines.
The main purpose of creation of Java, was to build a multi-platform programming language which works in any machine with any OS. The point is, Java codes, directly complied to binaries (not for example to assembly as C++ does), and could run in any machine, as long as you have JVM (Java Virtual Machine) installed in your machine (to interpret Java codes to binaries). That’s why we call Java, oldest multi-platform programming language. Java, also has very powerful Object Oriented features and has very strong platform for server side web Development (Java EE).
Ruby is designed by a Japanese engineer in 1995. His purpose was to design a language which is more object oriented than any other existing language and somehow it was successful. Ruby has a great framework for web development (Ruby on Rails), and is being more popular among developers every year.
PhP is most popular web development programming language in world and almost 78% of all websites, is designed by PhP. WordPress and Joomla, are two famous CMS (Content Management System), based on PhP and honestly none of other web development languages, has CMS like WordPress.
As you maybe know, C language does not support Object Oriented paradigm and Objective-C is an Object Oriented Language based on C language. Mac Operating System is mainly designed by Objective-C and also C++ till swift language has emerged. Swift, also inherited many core features of Objective-C and now, swift is main language to develop apple smart phone apps.